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How To Test A Gas Furnace Pressure Switch With Multimeter


How To Test A Gas Furnace Pressure Switch With Multimeter

The pressure switch is a small and useful component but can lead to a lot of failures if not understood well. This post will provide you all the required information on “how to test a gas furnace pressure switch with multimeter“. But before that, let’s know what is it and how it works because it’s the pressure switch that might create the biggest of the problems. Focus on the important things first before you change the gas furnace pressure switch.

What Is A Furnace Pressure Switch?

 A furnace pressure switch is a safety component which sends the signal that the inducer motor is working. The inducer motor pulls out toxic gases coming out from the flames. The pressure switch is used as a safety to allow passage of gas. Basically, it acts as a safety mechanism.

Before you learn about “how to test a gas furnace pressure switch with multimeter“; let’s first know how does a switch work!

How Does The Switch Work?

First of all, the switch bears a diaphragm. Whenever a vacuum is applied, the diaphragm comes out. The diaphragm doesn’t come out in the absence of vacuum. A switch is connected to the diaphragm which tells whether the diaphragm is opened or closed! In the presence of vacuum, the diaphragm comes out and closes the switch while in its absence, the switch remains open. In such a case, the furnace remains off. 

What does the switch do?

A switch is simply a connection to allow the power to pass. If it is a light switch, pushing the switch on manually will turn on the light but a pressure switch turns on because of the pressure of air. We can rather say that suction created her turns on the pressure switch. The inducer fan is responsible for the suction created. Turning on the fan will pull the vacuum present in the switch with the help of the rubber tube. The rubber tube connects the fan and the pressure switch which is responsible for pulling the switch in to close a circuit. Hence, the power is passed to the igniter.

Main Purpose Of The Switch

The main purpose of the switch is to assure that the whole unit is working alright. If there is something wrong with the unit then it will not work properly. Ultimately, the toxic gases won’t get removed and there is surely a risk. The best way to know this is that the switch does not allow the unit to ignite until it gets The desired amount of suction.

Causes Of Failures

The various causes for failures due to a furnace pressure switch are:

  • Suction Tube being low
  • Loosely connected wires
  • Bad switch
  • Blockage in chimney

What Can Be Done In Case Of A Failure?

Before you know “how to test a gas furnace pressure switch with multimeter“, get informed of the methods that can be applied in case of a failure. Keeping a check on the causes of failures can help you out. Following are the ways to resolve in case of a failure:

  • If the pressure switch doesn’t work, you won’t be able to hear the opening of the valve. On the contrary, the sound of the opening valve indicates that the pressure switch is in working condition and everything is perfect.
  • Another method is to turn off the furnace. Next, check if there is a sound coming from the inducer fan. Try to remove it yourself first. If the motor is slow or you notice something else the there is a need to get the motor changed and the switch is working well.
  • Check out for the tightness of the switch hose. Tightening a loose switch hose can fix up the problem whereas a pit in the hose might need to be sealed. One can also cut out the damaged part and reconnect the hose. Before you do any of the replacements, make sure the housing is cool. Ultimately, the switch will work properly after the hose is fixed up.

If you have ruled out that none of these problems are present then there’s a possibility that the switch is bad. To confirm if the switch is bad, you can apply this method to know “how to test gas furnace pressure switch with a multimeter“.

Testing with the multimeter

A multimeter is used to test the pressure switch and check the continuity of the switch whether it is closed or it is opened. The switch is being tested to check if its closing when the diaphragm is pulled in. The steps are as follows:

  •  The switch wires have to be removed first.
  • Touch the two switch wires with the multimeter leads. Make sure that the meter reads the continuity.
  • The furnace will be turned on next. The draft inducer motor also turns on.
  • Now commence blowing air out of the vent so that a vacuum is created.
  • The vacuum makes the diaphragm to pull in and hence the switch gets closed.
  • Use the multimeter to check if the switch closes.
  • The multimeter will check of any change.
  • If the switch closes, then it shows continuity and is working properly.
  • If the switch remains open then there is not change in continuity. The switch is bad.
  • You have to replace the switch now to resolve the issue.

Other possibilities

Before you change an inducer motor or decide to change the switch, sone other things too must be kept in mind. The other possibilities:

  • A hose that’s kinked
  • Clogging of the flue pipe
  • Any other things that intervenes the inducer motor from pushing the air out of the vent

All these possibilties can also stop the gas furnace pressure switch from working well. Make sure you have a look at these things too before you finally decide to change the pressure switch. If none of these are present and you have tried all the possible ways to eliminate the causes and check for the faults, it’s time you change the pressure switch and don’t take a risk with it.


Why Is Copper Used For Soldering Iron?

Why Is Copper Used For Soldering Iron?


The process of soldering has been used since the olden times. It’s been around 5,000 years since the process was started to be used. It was used for various purposes like manufacturing jewelry items and cookware. “Why is copper used for soldering iron” is the most common question asked by people. Knowing the process of soldering is important before you get an answer to this question.

What is soldering?

Soldering is the process of joining two or metals with the help of another metal. The another metal is a filler which has melting point lower than that of the metals it is getting joined to. The soldering is done at a low temperature than brazing. Lead was most commonly found in solders during the olden times but now they manufacture lead-free alloys for purposes like plumbing citing health issues.

Applications of soldering

Soldering finds its use in various purposes.

  • Electronics
  • Metalworks from flashing to jewelry and musical instruments
  • Reversible and permanent connections between copper pipes
  • In sheet metal objects for joints
  • Roof flashing and in automobile radiators
  • Jewelry components
  • Machining tools
  • Musical instruments
  • Refrigeration and plumbing components by silver soldering process at higher temperatures
  • Small mechanical components
  • In stained glass work to join lead and copper foil
  • For connecting electrical wiring and electronic components to circuit boards by electronic soldering using a solder.
  • For soldering brass bodies

Why Is Copper Used For Soldering Iron

These applications might have made you wonder “why is copper used for soldering iron” when other alloys can also be used! Let’s first know solder before you get an answer to this.

What is a solder?

Solder is nothing but a metal alloy that can be fused to create a bond between two metals. It has to be melted first so as to connect two metal pieces together upon cooling. A solder must have a melting point lower as compared to the metals it is being connected to. A solder must not get oxidised and must be resistant to corrosion. The solder used for electrical purposes must have the desired electrical characteristics. The melting point of soft solders ranges between 90° C to 450° C. The alloys that melt at around 180° C are the most common ones. The melting point of hard solders is above 450° C and are soldered by hard soldering. The other terms for hard soldering is brazing or silver soldering.

A range of thicknesses is available for hand soldering which is done using a soldering iron or soldering gun which may also contain flux. Before you proceed further to know “why is copper used for soldering iron“; first know what is flux!



Flux is an agent that brings the oxidised metals to their metallic state. Basically, it is a reducing agent which acts on metal oxides at contact points to improve the strength. It is of two types- acid flux and rosin flux.

  • Acid flux- It is also called as the active flux. It contains strong acids and hence the name. It is mainly used for plumbing purposes and metal mending.
  • Rosin flux- It is also called as the passive flux. It finds its use in electronics.


Now-a-days, water-soluble flux is being used especially by electronics industry because of atmospheric pollution concerns. The water-soluble flux can be removed using detergent and deionized water. Hydrocarbon solvents aren’t used. Also, flux-core solders are in use since a century which is manufactured as a coiled wire of solder. It has rosin flux embedded along the length. Upon melting the solder, flux gets freed.


You can now be informed about the soldering iron and “why copper is used for soldering iron“. Let’s get some more knowledge on soldering iron.

What is a Soldering iron?

A hand tool used for soldering manually is a soldering iron. It melts the solder by supplying heat so as to make the solder flow on the two metal pieces being joined. Soldering iron comprises of a heated metal tip and an insulated handle. An electric current is usually passed through a heating element and heating is hence, achieved electrically. Cordless irons are also in use these days that can be heated by gas combustion. The gas is stored in a catalytic heater.

Uses of soldering iron

  • For repairs
  • High volume production lines
  • Production work in electronics assembly
  • Soldering joints in sheet metal objects
  • For installation
  • Plastic welding and pyrography (less used for this)


Types of soldering iron

Simple iron, cordless iron and temperature-controlled soldering iron are the three types of soldering iron. 

Simple Iron

It is a low power iron. It has a power rating of around 25 watts. These irons run at uncontrolled temperature. A temperature drop can be observed while heating something large.

Cordless Iron

They require cordless operation and can be used when electricity is not available. These are small irons which get heated with the help of a battery. They are also called the gas-powered irons as they make use of gas combustion. They adjust the gas flow to change power and have interchangeable tips.

Temperature-controlled Soldering Iron

These are the advanced irons for use in electronics. They have a temperature sensor and a method for temperature control. This helps to keep a constant temperature for the tip.

Why copper is used for soldering iron?

The tip of soldering iron is generally a copper or a copper core coated with iron or other metal. Copper allows for good conductivity of heat. Tinning the tip allows better heat transfer between the components being soldered and the soldering iron. The tip is cleaned to a shiny metal finish and then a layer of solder is applied when the iron is hot enough to melt out the solder. With the passage of time, tip loses the coating and the copper core gets exposed. However, the tip can be replaced or you can file the tip for using it again.

      This definitely might have now given you a clear idea about soldering, soldering iron and “why copper is used for soldering iron“! Hope you got a crisp knowledge of this.

What kind of multimeter do I need?


How To Refill A Butane Soldering Iron?

Soldering iron has always been a savior whenever you find out some fault with your belongings and want them to repair. A variety of soldering irons have come up for your convenience; including butane soldering irons. However, a commonly asked question has been “how to refill a butane soldering iron” but nobody could make it to the correct answer for this. Without further ado, let’s provide you all the information on “how to refill a butane soldering iron“.

The butane soldering iron has been provided to us with a number of advantages. Knowing about the butane soldering iron first, will be followed by knowing its advantages.

Butane soldering iron

It is a type of soldering iron that is portable. Easy to refuel; it provides an extensive range of heat. They aren’t limited to cords along with a specific range of heat; when compared to electric soldering irons. Not electricity, but they are rather powered by fuel. It has given some relief to you whenever you need to do soldering in a far-from-outlet area. It helps you save big on your time and energy. Other soldering irons consume a lot of time where you deal with cords and outlet access.

    The advantage it offers is its use, even when outdoors. Absence of electricity will never worry you again. Butane soldering iron is ideal to be used at places with no power supply. They work without a power cord. They can be easily used in inaccessible areas and work well in difficult areas. They are perfectly useful for occasional repairs. They don’t require to be plugged and warmed up to the correct temperature. They are the best for a quick repair job. Wherever a cordless convenience is needed, they are the best solution for electronic use.

Features of butane soldering iron

The butane soldering iron warms up rapidly. It directly contact the parts being soldered and heat them quickly. Again, your time and energy gets saved that other soldering irons consume for warming up. It can be operated, turned on and off as per your needs. It offers a wide range of heat unlike the electric soldering irons. You can easily limit the amount of butane that will be used while soldering. This consumes less heat and chances of under-soldering and over-soldering are very well prevented.

How To Refill A Butane Soldering Iron?

        You can easily adjust the amount of butane to be used by turning the knob and changing watts. The butane soldering irons offer a few advantages in comparison to the electric soldering irons. One of them is that they are affordable. It has a number of benefits allowing you to choose them over the other types of soldering irons. The butane soldering irons can be refilled with butane aerosols.

Advantages of butane soldering iron

  • It is pocket sized
  • Easy to carry anywhere
  • It is lightweight
  • Pack a powerful punch that allows cutting wires.
  • It is great for quick repairs
  • It binds the materials together with strength.

Purposes of butane soldering iron

The butane soldering iron serves a number of purposes and finds its use in a variety of tasks to be carried out. Some of the purposes of butane soldering iron are listed here.

  • Seal polythene- It has a hot knife for sealing polythene, incising and sealing the nylon rope.
  • Heat shrink tubing- It has a mini hot-air nozzle to heat shrink tubing.
  • For thermoplastics- The hot knife also cuts and shapes the thermoplastics.
  • Heating metal parts- It has a high temperature bunsen tip to heat the metal parts.
  • Electronic repair- It has a soldering tip for electronic repairs.

Before you proceed further to know “how to refill a butane soldering iron“, let’s have a look at some of its greatest benefits.

Some good benefits

Butane soldering irons can use butane gas tanks as a source of power that can be refilled; for heating the tip. The gas flow allows to control the temperature of the tip. The refilling of the butane gas soldering iron is cost-effective. Butane is a gas that is readily available anywhere and is very inexpensive too. The best thing about them is their potential to handle all types of soldering work. When the butane powered soldering irons are used, soldering can be completed in lesser period of time. The gas burns fast and we readily get the power source for the soldering iron to work. The butane soldering iron is ready to be used in not more than a minute.


The advancements in butane powered soldering iron have provided us with more convenience. They now come up with stands, snap-on, cleaning sponges and many more to provide you the much needed relief.

Now that you have known almost everything about the butane soldering iron, you can be informed about the “how to refill a butane soldering iron” to answer your query and provide you the satisfaction.

How to refill a butane soldering iron?

  • Firstly, make sure it has not been used recently.
  • Next, there should be any smoke nearby.
  • Place the soldering iron on a solid surface. Doing so, you can handle the iron well and refill it easily. It also allows to carry out the refill procedure well.
  • The soldering iron should be places in such a way so that the side where the tank is, comes up for easy refilling of the soldering iron.
  • Take the container which contains the butane gas in it.
  • Insert the nozzle of the container in the hole of the gas tank of the soldering iron.
  • Hold it in this position for about ten seconds.
  • You should be able to clearly see the butane gas being filled in the gas tank of the soldering iron. While you do it, some of the butane gas can be seen coming out.
  • After ten seconds, the tank is filled with the butane gas.
  • Keep it down for some time. This allows the butane gas to get stabilized.
  • After some time, you can use the soldering iron as the butane gas might have got stabilized.
  • Be careful while using the soldering iron.

  So, this was all that you wanted to know about the butane soldering iron. This might have answered your queries and you now might have understood the soldering iron well. Hope you got the answer to your “how to refill a butane soldering iron” and this might have made using the tool, much easier for you.


How To Fix Headphones Without Soldering Iron?


How To Fix Headphones Without Soldering Iron?

Headphones are an important part of the everyday life of the millenials. Many people are so much addicted to the headphones that a moment without the pairs on; seems to be a boring, dull life to them. Using and handling the headphones badly may cause malfunctioning and then a repair or replacement is needed. Not everyone has all the tools to fix them and then people keep pondering on “how to fix headphones without soldering iron“. Let’s first get a detail knowledge about the headphones before learning to fix them. 

     Not every headphone is same; although the basic mechanism remains similar. Knowing a lot about your harbinger of joy will help you have a good time by handling it well. This post will provide you the detail information on “how to fix headphones without soldering iron” after you learn everything about the headphones.

What is a headphone?

Headphones are mini-speakers worn on your ears. The two ear cups connected by a band make up; what we call the headphones and placed on the head ending around the ears. They comprise of the transducers which are responsible for converting the audio signals to sound waves.

Do you know the parts of the headphones? Will you be able to understand “how to fix headphones without soldering iron” when you don’t even know which part of the headphones is creating the problem? Let’s give a read to the various parts of the headphones.

Parts of a headphone


The cable extends along the entire length from the jack to the speakers. A rubber or any non-conductive material costs the set of wires in a cable. The electric signals travel from your device to the speakers through the cable. It may get twisted because of which, the wires get weakened. These wires are more prone to breakage leading to difficulty in the passage of signals. You will able to hear the sound only in one speaker or no sound in any of the speakers indicating a damaged cable.


How To Fix Headphones Without Soldering Iron

The small piece you notice at the end of the cable of your headphones is the jack. The jack isolugged into your device so that the circuit gets completed and signals can pass through them. It has to be taken care of, not to bend and break it down. The point at which the cable contacts the jack can easily get twisted and bent. Ultimately, this leads to the breakage of wire. One won’t be able to then hear the sound in one of the speakers. However, twisting the wire will help you get back the sound at certain points.


The part which received the electric signals turning them into clear, quality sound is the speaker. The better the speakers, the better is the sound quality. If you hear a buzzing sound with headphones on, then probably the speakers are worn out due to high-volume music or due to much use.

Headphone cushions:

The soft cushions (made of foam-type material), covering the speaker boxes are the headphone cushions. The various purposes of the headphone cushions are :-

  • To provide comfort- It is more comfortable to wear headphones with good quality cushions rather than the hard speakers.
  • To isolate the noise- It blocks the interfering noises from outside. The better the shape and design, more is the blocking out of noise.
  • To provide grip- The cushions provide grip to prevent sliding. This grip allows headphones to stay still alongwith giving comfort.


The hard part connecting the two ends, i.e. both the speakers; is the headband. It allows you a comfortable and secure wearing of the headphones by holding the speakers together. If a wire goes along the headband then there are chances that it may also be responsible for any malfunctioning of your headphones.

       A question that might be running in you mind now is, “how to fix headphones without soldering iron” which can be answered only when you know the cause behind the fault in your headphones. Let’s know the causes to answer this query further.

Causes of headphone malfunction

  • No cleaning- Bad headphone cushions is the commonest problem with headphones. After using your headphones for a certain period of time, you might notice that the comfort and blocking about unwanted noise, provided by your headphones has vanished away. This is primarily due to improper cleaning of headphone cushions. The quality of your headphones is maintained when you clean the headphone cushions properly and regularly. Improper cleaning or no cleaning of headphone cushions promote bacteria and dirt to build up. 
  • Storage being improper- One must store their headphones properly to extend the life of the headphones. Improper storage of the headphones may cause a lot of damages 20 headphone cushions and the wires present in the headphone. Make sure you don’t bend or twist your headphones while storing them to prevent any kind of damage to the headphones. Also, make sure the wire doesn’t stretch while you use the headphones. Prevent the tangling of the cable to avoid damage or breakage.
  • High volume- Listening the music at high volumes main cause your headphones to get damaged. The higher the sound, more is the vibration in the headphones which later leads to a buzzing sound in your headphone speakers.

      You may now be able to very well understand how to fix the headphones. Even though you don’t own a soldering iron, you can fix your headphones.

How to fix headphones without soldering iron?

  • AUX cable needs to be cut first. From the connector, cut around 7 cm but it shouldn’t get short. 
  • Don’t press the blade hard and cut the rubber sheath. Keep on turning the wire while you make cuts and remove the sheath.
  • Next put the wire end in the flame to make a quick flash and light it up. Blow on it when around 1cm is burnt. Hence, the wiring is peeled off. Keep in mind not to allow the wire to fall of dur to burning.
  • Mostly the wires are broken near to the connector. Incise above the connector, around 2 cm to take out the broken part. Expose the wires and clean off the varnish on them.
  • Now twist the three AUX wires to the three headphones’.
  • The ground wire is always of gold colour. Twist all the gold wires. Next, twist the wiring of AUX cable with that of the headphones.
  • Be sure you twist the red wire of AUX cable connect to that of the repaired headphones. 
  • The wires have to be isolated now and a scotch tape is used to connect everything. 
  • You may finally notice that everything is done and your headphones are working well. Hope you got the answer to your “how to fix headphones without soldering iron“.


How To Test A Treadmill Motor With Multimeter


How To Test A Treadmill Motor With Multimeter

The new-era demands you to stay fit along with working day-long. This generation comprises of the ‘working-class’ people more; who work hard to earn a living. Ultimately, it demands you to stay fit and healthy for the same. The best and the easiest way is to own a treadmill. The treadmill allows you to workout in any kind of weather and at any place according to your free-time.

Now, one might be thinking about the actual purpose of a treadmill. It is a machine on which one can have a walk or run rhythmically to workout. The advantage it offers is adjustability of speed. They mostly run at a speed of 12 mph. Getting a clear insight about the machine, let’s first know about the types of motors used in a treadmill. The first one is an AC motor while the other one is a DC motor. DC motors are the weaker ones while AC motors are quite powerful. However, the AC motors make much noise along with requiring a dedicated power line. AC motors are generally used in commercial treadmills that are large while the DC motors are used in machines for use at home.

How To Test A Treadmill Motor With Multimeter

   One must consider the type of motor being used while buying a treadmill; as it provides the power to the treadmill being used. Also called as the “heart” of the treadmill; the motor must be of the best quality for better performance. The level of a motor’s power reveals the horsepower (also called as HP) of a treadmill. The HP measurement is of two types- continuous duty and peak duty. Continuous duty HP; as the name goes, is responsible for maintaining the level of power continuously till the workout gets over. Contrary to this, peak duty HP reaches the peak of its power but only for a shorter duration. You can clearly see that the motor with continuous duty HP is apt for your treadmill. A continuous duty HP of around 3HP is best. Approximately 700 Watts of energy isused by a treadmill.

You have to be careful while buying a treadmill. Even if your treadmill belt stops moving when turned on, it means you need to replace the motor and not the treadmill. A multimeter is used to test a treadmill motor; if in case your treadmill is not working. Now you might be thinking, “What kind of multimeter do I need?” For that you first need to know what a multimeter is and what purpose it serves! Any electrical circuit needs to be tested to check whether it is working! A multimeter is a tool to test the circuits. To be specific, it is a device of measure of the resistance, voltage and current in any electrical circuit. It is also called as volt-ohm-milliammeter (VOM). Again you might be wondering “what kind of multimeter do I need?” Let’s have a look at the type of multimeters first.

There are two types of multimeters- analog and digital multimeters. Analog multimeters show readings with the help of microammeter with moving pointer. The digital multimeters show the measured value through a graphical bar on a numerical display. A multimeter consists of a DC and AC voltmeter, ohmmeter and an ammeter; and hence the name goes. If a value varies rapidly then analog multimeters are used whereas the digit multimeters provide more accuracy at low cost. Digit multimeters aren’t uncommon these days. Multimeters excel in finding out the faults and show desired accuracy.

You have come to know what multimeters actually are and what exactly is their use! Giving a thought to your requirements, again the question “what kind of multimeter do I need?” might be striking your mind! So, be informed about what multimeters to be used and when. Highly sensitive circuits require an analog multimeter for their measurement. If the circuit you are about to measure is one such, go for analog multimeter. Digit multimeters show accuracy. So, if you want to record even a slight DC voltage change then digital multimeters must be preferred. Analog multimeters are quite difficult for this data to be read and logged; whereas the digital ones are easy to read. Make sure you also check the highest current and voltage ratings of your multimeter.

Now that you have known deeply about the multimeters; you can finally proceed to know the method of testing a treadmill motor with a multimeter. Hope you have got the answrr to your “what kind of multimeter do I need?” and made a decision. Be aware of the method to test a treadmill motor with the help of a multimeter.

The foremost thing before testing a treadmill motor is to unplug the treadmill. It is a very crucial thing to be done prior to the treadmill motor testing. Next, the cover of motor must be removed. For that, take a screw driver and unscrew the screws on the motor’s cover. Now, you have to carefully disconnect the two wires leading to the power supply. The DC lead is usually the red one. If there’s a multimeter with a DC amp test setting then you can put the meter inline on this red motor wire. Next, try running the machine at a speed as low as 2.5 mph. Make sure there isn’t anyone on the treadmill. If the motor is in the working condition and everything is alright with it then you may get a 2-3 amp reading.

If the desired reading is shown on the multimeter then a person can be made to use the treadmill. Again, if everything is perfect then the multimeter will display the reading to be around 6-8 amp. Readings are sure to fluctuate depending on the weight of the person using the treadmill. However, on an average, one will definitely get an average reading of about 10 amps. If the value exceeds this, there is surely something wrong! Also, if it shows a high reading when nobody is on the treadmill then there might be some high resistance issues with the motor; or the belts of the treadmill might be too-tight. High readings when there is absence of load indicates that the belt is worn-out probably.


Fibrocystic breast changes


Fibrocystic breast changes

What is it

Fibrosis is a kind of benign breast condition, but that does not mean it is necessarily cancer.

Most breast swellings are because of the fibrocystic breast changes. The growth could be as a result of a collection of fibrous tissue in some regions of the breast. The fibrous tissue is similar to the tissue that the scars and the ligaments tissue are constituted of.

The growths could also be as a result of one or more accumulation of fluid in some region of the breast. These are referred to as cysts.

In other cases, women have parts of cysts and fibrosis in one breast.

So Who Gets This Disease?

At some point in most women’s lives, they will experience fibrocystic breast changes in the breast. These kinds of diseases are most common in women that are in their childbearing age, though these could affect women of any other age as well. The lump can happen in both breasts at the same time and in different parts of the breast.

Cysts will mostly happen in women who are in their 40s.


You might feel a lump in your breasts. Other women might have a slightly cloudy or clear discharge from their nipple.

You may experience the following symptoms if you have fibrocystic breast disease:

  • tenderness
  • swelling
  • Thickening of tissue
  • pain
  • Swellings in either of the breasts

It is possible that you may feel one or more lumps or swelling in one of the breasts than you may feel it in the other. The symptoms will even be worse just before you get your periods because of the hormonal imbalances, but you may still get the symptoms for the entire cycle.

The swellings in fibrocystic breast change are commonly movable and tend to vary in size for the entire month. But at times, especially if there is too much fibrous tissue, the swellings tend to be more fixed in just one area.

You can also feel a bit of pain underneath your arms. Other women produce a dark brown or green fluid from the nipples.

If you see a red, bloody or clear discharge coming out of the nipple, see a doctor as soon as possible, because it could be an indication of breast cancer.



Cysts are in most cases oval or round, movable swellings that can be soft when you touch that area. The cysts may become more painful and also get bigger and more profound just before you get your periods.

Cysts begin as fluid builds up in the breast glands. They begin as very tiny, microscopic cysts also referred to as microcysts which are very tiny to notice. Microcysts can only be seen when the breast tissue is put under a microscope. The larger cysts are known as macrocysts. They are quite easy to notice and feel, which could be 1- to 2-inches wide. As the cysts swell the breast tissue around they can stretch and be painful or tender sometimes.


Areas that are affected by fibrosis tend to feel hard, firm, or rubbery when you touch them.


Often, the fibrocystic breast changes are diagnosed relative to the symptoms, like breast swelling, lumps, and/or pain or tenderness. The symptoms tend to get worse when you are about to have your menstrual period, & also changes during the various stages of the cycle. You might feel lumpy in your breasts, and in other instances, you may notice a bit cloudy or clear nipple fluid.

At times, one of the swellings may seem to be firmer or have different features that lead to a concern of cancer. When it happens, an ultrasound can be conducted to establish if the swelling is solid or it is just full of a fluid (which is known as a simple cyst). This is not a cause of concern at all. Though if the ultrasound shows that the swelling is solid or if the cyst has both the solid and fluid substances (Which could be complex cyst), then a biopsy is required to ascertain if it is cancer or not.

How does this disease affect the risk of breast cancer?

Neither simple cysts nor fibrosis increases the risk of developing breast cancer later on in life. Complex cysts should give you more concern and cause alarm because chances are slim that you will be at risk of cancer later on in life or that you may have cancer at some point, and it depends on what is diagnosed when the biopsy was done.


You don’t need to remove the Cyst fluid unless it makes you feel discomfort. Though the fluid can be removed by placing a hollow needle in the swollen cyst, it is also to confirm the diagnosis. draining the fluid can minimize the pain and pressure temporarily. After removing it, the fluid may return after some time, but it may go away for a very long time also. For one which continues to return & cause symptoms, going got a surgery to do away with it might be an alternative.

Many women with fibrocystic breast changes and don’t have bothersome symptoms do not require treatment, but they can be monitored closely. You may be relieved by well-fitted, supportive bras, applying heat or use over-the-counter pain relievers if you get a bit uncomfortable.

Other women claim that the symptoms of their breast improved if they did not take caffeine & other stimulants found in chocolate, tea, coffee, and most other soft drinks. Research shows a clear link between the stimulants and these breast symptoms, though most women feel like if they avoid those drinks and foods for several months could greatly help.

Since the breast lump swells when the menstrual cycle is coming to an end, it might be worse for some women, other doctors suggest over-the-counter pain relievers like ibuprofen or acetaminophen, or other drugs. It has also been recommended that other kinds of herbal or vitamin supplements may reduce those symptoms, but so far, none of these solutions are useful, & others if taken in large doses come with side effects. Other doctors give prescription hormones, like tamoxifen, androgens or oral contraceptives. though they are usually given to women only with bad symptoms since they can have bad side effects as well.


Professionalism in public relation


Professionalism in public relation

Professionalism is the effort put to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organization and its public. Public Relation is also said to be an combination of philosophy, sociology, economics, languages, psychology, journalism, communication and other knowledge into a system of human understanding.

It is known as public relation is a science that is responsible for managing communication between an organization and society, with the aim of building, managing ad maintaining its positive image.  It is said that its origin go back to antiquity, when tribal societies tried to promote respect for the chief’s authority.

The main objective is to maintain a positive reputation of the brand and maintain a strategic relationship with the public perspective, customers, partners, investors, employees and other stakeholders.  Which leads to positive image of the brand and make it seem important and successful.

There are two major skills required are – one is specific knowledge and the other is an adequate personal makeup on the mental and on the behavioral planes.  The two are interwoven and both are complex composition of several elements.

What a public relations professionals should possess –

A good public relation professional should know how to fight adversity, seize opportunities, pitch stories, maintain a positive image, cultivate strong media connections and build strategy. He knows ……

 It’s hard to listen; easy to talk

It’s hard to agree; easy to argue

It’s hard to give ;easy to take 

It’s hard to build; easy to destroy.

The scope of Public Relations in today’s world.

The scope of public relation is wide and also include political field, entrepreneurs, teachers political leaders social workers, religious leaders and leaders are all involved day in and out. its a tool in production, marketing and finance.

Today public relation is accepted by all business organization and by non-business organization as well.  There is plenty of scope to reach out to the student population to help industry and institution building, and the promotion and development of citizenship are vital and should be instilled into the community.

The tools that were available to Public Relation practitioners in the past were relatively few.  Development of software for satellite communication is a great challenge for all those who want to communicate.  The television and radio which have proved to be of immense influence in developed countries. The spread of literacy has made the written word much more meaningful.

A public relation practitioner should be sufficiently competent to be welcomed into the policy making level of the institution which he has been called upon to serve.

Wrong use of public relation has aroused criticism.  The actual strength of public relation lies in its looseness, flexibility  and informal approach. A public relation practitioner should not misuse his power and potential. A public relation person should anticipate opportunities of an organization with proper preliminary planning and guidance ,these become the most tangible phase of the company. The tools of public relations are – publicity, advertising, printed materials, employee activities, stockholder reports and company publications.

Public relation is a hardnosed operation and blessed are the men who are in this professional public relation area. It’s very important to present himself as a competent and trustworthy individual. Professionalism is  essential as it is a core ethical values of practice of public relation, including advocacy, honesty, loyalty, professional development and objectivity.



Why a brand name is important while investing in real estate


Why a brand name is important while investing in real estate

The one of the most significant financial decision in every household is of buying the property. Many factors may affect this decision, out of which the most important one is the brand name. The brand name holds importance because it serves as a measure of the value of the property as the brand name creates trust among customers. Some of the crucial reasons that why it is important to opt for the builders who strong reputation with the impressive brand name has been mentioned below:

Expertise and Credibility

To avoid any kind of fraud or foul play, it is always essential that the buyer should opt for the trusted builder. A reputed builder always has transparent dealing without any financial fraud satisfying the buyer. On the other hand, if a builder is not renowned, the chances of property on certain land become higher. Also, the level of expertise of reputed builders is very high as they have years of experience and knowledge of the real estate industry. In addition, the products used in their project are of high quality. A well-established builder offer the property with all the necessary facilities without compromising the value of construction

Timely Delivery

Most of the real estate sites in India are RERA registered. The projects of reputed buyers are registered as per government policies, therefore; they do not delay possession if the property is under construction as this may affect their reputation and brand name. They complete the construction on time for timely delivery. Also, if timely delivery is not done, the builders may face penalties from RERA.

Investment returns are higher

The brand name also helps in selling the property. If the buyers plan to sell or let out its apartment o rent, the brand name may help to gain more profits. The value of property becomes higher if it is associated with the reputed brand name of the builder. In addition, the established builders always consider good housing sites in India with well connectivity and infrastructure for the construction of new properties 

Home loan sanctioning

If the brand name of the builder is reputed, the banks also rely on them for bank loans. If leading and popular builders have developed the property, then the home loan gets sanctioned easily. These builders of real estate in India have tie-ups with reputed banks such as HDFC, ICICI and many more. These banks have trust in builders, and therefore the loans are sanctioned without any hassle. 


Vital Benefits of Bajaj Finance Fixed Deposits at a Glance!

Short term fixed deposit investments had gone down by 3.25% during the demonetisation in the financial year 2017. Interestingly, this rate has come up over the following years with fixed deposits investments currently contributing the lion’s share of basic statistical returns of financial institutions. With numerous investors choosing fixed deposits as their mode of investment, it is important that they also understand the different benefits which are offered.

Numerous financial institutions offer these secured investment options. Only a few like Bajaj Finance Fixed Deposits have additional benefits that make the investments especially advantageous. These features must be understood properly to avail the maximum benefits under these investment plans.

  • High returns: Fixed deposit investments offer high returns to their investors. Any investor opting to invest with Bajaj Finance can avail high returns, which goes up to 8.10% per annum. Numerous factors determine this rate of interest on FDs. It generally includes the age of the investor, existing accounts with the financial institution, etc. Even NRI deposits are offered at high interest rates, provided they fulfil the necessary criteria.
  • Low minimum deposit amount: As an investment option, fixed deposit accounts are exceptionally secure. This security makes it a good investment option especially for mid-level earners who do not have to worry about the losses. Consequently, a low minimum investment amount beginning at Rs.25,000 is offered by this NBFC so that any interested individual can invest in these schemes. It can go up to Rs.5 crore.
  • Easy renewal: Easy renewal options allow investors to extend their fixed deposit investment tenor, thereby increasing the profit margin. Potential investors who can plan their finances well ahead can also opt for auto-renewal facility. This feature allows an individual to avoid the hassle of applying for renewal by essentially activating it while investing the first time.
  • Option for multi-deposit: Bajaj Finance Fixed Deposits allow investors to invest in multiple fixed deposit accounts using a single cheque. Essentially, this saves the hassle of handling numerous cheques and financial details. Additionally, in case the investor requires financial aid suddenly, they can simply withdraw one account. This allows other investments to stay intact and generate revenue.
  • Loan options: An exclusive feature offered by only a few financial institutions, Bajaj Finance allows investors to avail high-value loan amounts against their fixed deposit accounts.

Usually, the loan amount that is offered goes up to Rs.4 lakh. It is helpful because while the investment is intact on one hand, investors can still avail financial aid in cases of emergencies. It is important that investors understand how a loan against FD works before applying for this line of credit.

  • Easy application: The application procedure along with several payment options ensure that investors do not have to go through any hassle while they invest their money. Investors can simply apply online to open a Bajaj Finance FD.

Additionally, numerous payment options allow investors to choose the most convenient method for themselves. Even NRI deposits can be easily availed as only a few additional documents are required.

  • Convenient tenor option: Investors can choose a convenient tenor for their investment since flexible tenors are offered by this financial institution. They have the option to choose any length of duration for the maturity of their FD account, ranging from 1 year to 5 years.
  • Senior citizen and existing customer benefits: Bajaj Finance Fixed Deposits are offered with additional perks and benefits for senior citizens and existing customers.

While potential investors can check out the benefits of Bajaj Finance Fixed Deposits, they should also make it a point to calculate the exact revenue that can be generated on their investment. It is easy to calculate the total amount they will get at the time of maturity by using an online fixed deposit calculator.

Any potential investor worried about how to use Bajaj Finance FD calculator should be assured of ease of use. This allows investors to plan their finances based on accurate details of their revenue generation.


Author Bio:
Gaurav Khanna is an experienced financial advisor, digital marketer, and writer who is well known for his ability to predict market trends. Check out his blog at HighlightStory

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